In AD 43 , the emperor Claudius ordered complete subjugation of the island and in about AD 47, two small hills near Thames were selected as a site for a new town. It was called Londinium...
There are thousands of things to see and do in London, and the fastest way to explore all of them is by metro or as it is known by Londoners "the Tube" - the first and the largest underground railway in the world (maybe on a par with Moscow metro only). Just avoid rush hours: 07.00-09.00 and 17.00-19.00. As famous as the Tube are London's red buses, especially nr. 11 as it traveling via some most famous landmarks (length is about 7 miles).
Discover the world's greatest museum of art and design - Victoria&Albert museum (free), as also the Natural History Museum and the Science Museum nearby. There are some of the greatest works of art for free: the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, National Portrait Gallery and the Tate Modern in Southwark (former power station). For a bird's eye view of London, take a trip on the BA London Eye. Do not mind long queue, it's moving very fast. Next to it is the County Hall which houses Dali Universe, dedicated to Salvador Dali (1904-1989).
London is one of the world's largest and most sophisticated financial centers so you might want to know more about the history of the central bank. Just visit the Bank of England Museum (free), opened by HM the Queen in 1988. Interesting to mention that the Bank is the sole issuer of currency notes in England and Wales but Scottish and Northern Irish banks may issue their own notes.
* The average life of a Bank of England note ranges from a year for a £5 note to 4 years for a £50 note!
If you want to get certified as a keen climber you have to climb 311 steps of the Monument (1621-1677) which stands in Monument street just off Fish Street Hill in the City of London. The Monument commemorates the Great Fire of London on Sunday 2 September 1666.
The Tower of London (initially the White Tower) was begun in the reign of William the Conqueror (1066-1087) and later served as a prison: two of Henry VIII's wives, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard were beheaded here, princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth II, who begun colonization of Ireland in 15), Thomas Moore (Lord Chancellor) and even notorious Rudolf Hess. The Yeoman Warders (often called Beefeaters) combine ceremonial role with that of tourist guide, they wear bright red state dress, which tonic depicts the insignia of the Queen including an Irish Shamrock!
The Albert Memorial 1872
The Monument (311 steps)
The London Eye - the tallest wheel in Europe (1999)